Learn to defend the history of your country
Written by Ahmed Abd El Moneim Zayed
Founder of Group 73 Historians
Translated by Randa Salah
“ Surely Egypt triumphed, and undoubtedly every Egyptian soldier & officer has triumphed definitely
Through these next lines we will confirm my words”
An anti campaign about war of 6 October has been spread via the internet within the last few years, and certainly you have talked or read a topic about the fake of October war (Yom Kippur War).
Campaigns distort the war history and allegation that Egypt was defeated or at least did not win, and instead of keeping silence because you don’t know the fact or give unsatisfying response.
I would like to present this topic to silence anyone who wants to distort the history of 6 October war.
Start with who argue with you by defining war
Is a series of military battles or one battle occur in order to achieve a political, economic, social, military, religion goals or other objectives. If that target did not achieve, the result of this war will be lost or vice versa.
History has witnessed various examples for these kind of wars,
not only that but also wars arose for reasons less important than that,
and if we focused on modern era, especially last century
, we will find that it is rich of wars that were conducted for different reasons, such as:
Wars for political objectives
Wars for Social objectives
Wars for Economical objectives
Wars for Military objectives
Such brief introduction: is to clarify the concept of war in a very simplified way to the reader, away from the world strategy experts and the definition of military books. Accordingly to that, we cannot measure winning or loss of a war unless we identify the objectives first, in order to determine victor.
What you and I care about here is two extremely important points to clarify the meaning of a war in the readers’ mind
Total War battles
Imagine a professional boxing match of 10 rounds or more and each tour winner, and the player can win the game from the first round by knockout.
Also, the player can be a winner over the rounds and then blown to bits in last round and the match score turns by just one stroke.
War is to achieve the objective (whether military or political, economic or social)
Could we consider for instance America triumphed in the Second Gulf War, or if Saddam Hussein managed to destroy all the oil wells of Kuwait total destruction and eliminated the Kuwait wealth of Petroleum?
Definitely not, because the US goal is to regain control over Kuwait Petroleum and secure Saudi Arabia oil, nevertheless, the declared goals is just for domestic consumption.
Could we consider US triumphed in Afghanistan ? Definitely not, because the declared goal was destroying Al-Qaeda as well as Taliban, and so far those goals have not yet realized. Etc
We can determine the results of series battles and achievement of leadership goals in the war, which determine the outcome of the war.
In accordance with the previous definition of war, then the War of October is a series of battles that took place to achieve a specific political goal planned it the president of the State Anwar El Sadat (May Allah have mercy on him).
Note that the President Sadat instruction to the Egyptian Army before the day of war was:
Unfreeze the Military, breaking the cease fire, to inflict the enemy as many casualties, land liberation on consecutive phases depends on the Armed forces capabilities.
Which means as a political objective known in the army in that war is to move the defunct military situation and Land liberation, in accordance with the available possibilities on sequential stages.
On one hand, Political direction or the entire war plan did not spoke about the liberation of Sinai, because it was not within the capabilities of the Egyptian army at that time.
On that basis, attacks plans has been set ever since 1968 and developed in accordance with the possibilities of the Egyptian forces.
On the other hand, we find that the Israeli military objective of the next war (before October War) was represented in setting plans of Hovah Aonim (Pigeon Tower ) to defend the Suez Canal line, then ( Ghazal plan ) to develop attacks west the Canal the occupation of Suez Canal, as well as trapping the Third Army and occupying Suez and Occupying Ismailia along with trapping the Second Army.
According to the memorandums of David Eliezer Israeli Commander of Chief and memorandum of Eli Zeira Chief of Israeli Military Intelligence, at that time Moshe Dayan ordered to set another offensive plan in May 1973 to cross the Canal to reach Cairo, but the plan perish because of the outbreak of October War.
In the history of all wars, no war entirely triumphed, or planned and executed perfectly well.
Therefore, it will be false who claims that there was a war wins all without losses and vice versa.
For that, we will present the War of October in neutral details according to references of International, Egyptian and Israeli, as a target to silence any non objective criticism aims to distort the image of the War.
October war can be divided into four major battles and the fifth were not implemented according to progress of the events and what was already done.
Battle I: the Egyptian cross the eastern bank of the canal and build bridge heads.
Battle II:SmashingIsraeli armored counter attack, as it expected in the
third day of the war.
Battle III: the development of the Egyptian attack.
Battle IV: Battle of Devresoar Gap.
Battle V: Ending the Gap (Shamel plan)
For Historical honesty, we can say that the outcomes of those battles are concise as follows:
Battle of Crossing 6- 7 October : Overwhelming success of Egyptian and massive losses on Israeli. Failure in achieving Hovah Aonim plan in the steadfastness of the Bar Lev Line, also in directing local strikes to the Egyptian forces, in order to incapacitation the Egyptian tanks from crossing. In the meanwhile, all the Egyptian forces achieved their direct targets throughout the first 2 days of war ( 6th and 7th of October ) with much less losses according to the foreign experts’ estimation.
Battle of the counter- attack 8 October : Another overwhelming success of Egyptian army was in repelling the attack of the Israeli Armored and destroying more than three brigades tanks, along the front line and the capture of the Brigade commander of the 190 Armored. Total Israel Losses was around 300 – 400 tanks all over the front
Battle of the development attack 14th of October : huge success of Israeli in destroying most of the armored 21 tanks Division and the Third Armored Brigade of the fourth Division . Egypt lost about 220 tanks and turning the initiative into the hands of the Israeli army.
Battle of the Gap 16 – 24 October : major success of Israeli in the heart of fighting balance by sending 3 armored groups behind the Egyptian army in the west of the canal with the absence of Egyptian armored forces that can repel, but those Israeli forces failed to occupy the cities of Suez nor Ismailia and turned from surrounded forces to the Egyptian Third Army to a blockading force from the rest of the Egyptian army.
Time factor became in the favor of Egypt once again, which was able to rebuild a strong reserve armored of armored Divisions 21 & 4 and mechanics Divisions 3, 6.
Israeli forces become exposed to a second war of attrition extended until January 74.
Israelis was betting on the Egyptian Third Army to surrender in the east of the canal through cutting off supplies to them and not to allow convoys authorized supplies from the United Nations to cross except a few of it , to starve the army and pushing them to surrender, which did not happened.
Shamel Plan : After the Egyptian Leadership regained once again the control over the situation after Oct. 24, they began in rebuilding huge armored force for Destroying the Israeli forces in the Gap , and with the passage of time in December 1973, the force was completed the preparations under the command of Maj. Gen. Saad Mamoun former commander of the Second Army.
According to Kissinger Book - the US Secretary of the State, America refused to allow Egypt to implement that plan, which America followed through the satellites, and watch the planning and the preparation phases,
But Kissinger quickly intervened and arrived in Aswan to meet with Sadat and told him that America will not permit the execution of that plan.
A Shamel plan in balance
The Egyptian Leadership prepared a huge armored force to execute the plan to destroy the Israeli forces west the Canal under the coverage of SAM missiles, which bounce to the west but without destruction, while most of it remained effective.
The Egyptian forces were formed under the leadership of Maj. Gen. Saad Mamoun, as following:
*Armored Division- 21 with 250 tanks after refilling the losses.
*Armored Division - 4 with 250 tanks after refilling the losses.
*Mechanic Division - 6 with 100 tanks.
*Mechanic Division - 23 with 100 tanks.
*Mechanic Division- 3 with 100 tanks.
*Infantry Division has been established – from Algerian brigade/ Moroccan brigade/ Sudanese and Tunisian battalion.
* parachutes Brigade – 182 .
*3 groups of Saaka ( Special Forces ) .
*Artillery of Second & Third Army.
General total was about 900 Egyptian tanks Ageist 600 Israeli tanks inside the gap.
No foreign expert or analyst disagree about that the Israeli military forces situation in the gap was wrong militarily Situation in every way, because this big force has one exit, which is a narrow passageway of land at the Deversoir area,
And if that only exit closed, then the Israeli forces will be surrounded in an inescapable. Siege
The width of the Israeli bridgehead at Deversoir not exceed than 10 km, the Egyptian forces allocated - Division 21 - to close that exit and
The 4th armored Division to open a path to a strong and steady supply to Suez and the Third army,
Therefore Kissinger said his famous threats that America will not accept the victory of the Soviet weapons over the American weapons again
He knew in advance the outcomes of this battle if it started .
Therefore, Israeli soldiers fired on the air joyfully when they knew about the convention of disengagement, because they survived from the trap and exit unharmed from the gap.
What makes the victory of October a huge and great victory we have the rights to be proud of as Egyptians?
*October war: is the only real victory of Arab Egyptian in our modern history. No Arab country fought a real war since the appearance of the Arab as real States in the 20th century, and the most beautiful thing is that the victory was versus Israeli, America and the Soviet Union itself
*We fought a country Advance technologically both in quantity and quality. It have weapons excels than all that the Arab states have, and they have weapons excel in its quality than the best Arabic weapon. Also, has ten years advanced technology on what the Arabs have, and still we won.
*We fought America that stood behind Israel with everything it has from advanced Weapons , the most Advanced ATM missile was sent to Israel in many cases at a time before this service enter in the United States Armed Forces itself,
the tanks were Sent to Israel while the counter of kilometers did not exceed 60 kilometers, ( 25 Mile )in addition to Sent mercenary pilots, as happened in the air battles after October 13, in which the Egyptian pilots and air defense officers sensed a different kind of pilots and air tactics,
Despite all that, we fought, we won and liberated our land.
* We fought the Soviet Union, which tried as much as possible to prevent us from entering the war,
and transmitting defeat and surrender Message in the hearts of Egyptian men through their experts and sometimes by Holding the spare parts for weapons supplies to us, to remain in control of our ability to fight and the decision of the war Remain in their hand, though that , we fought with what we have got and of Soviet Defensive weapons and won.
*We fought natural and artificial conditions of the Suez Canal the strongest water barrier in the world with its drastic conditions, which they said it needs the US & the Soviet weapons together to cross, and behind the Canal , Sand Wall which is equivalent to a residential building of six floors, and behind it , the Bar Lev Defense line, which it was said that it needs a small nuclear bombs to overcome it, it all tumbled under the feet of Egyptian men.
Questions may be directed to you about the war, and how should be your answer:
1-Third Army was surrounded and the Israeli army was at the distance of 100 kilos from Cairo, how Egypt claims victory?
This was true, and truthfully Egypt Army position was difficult as well as the Israeli forces position, because the Israeli forces was in the gap in a large numbers indeed but they were not controlling all the territory, and there was an known military principle , says: occupation of a land something and holding on to it is another thing.
Israeli forces extend to large distances inside the gap, but not controlling all these territories entirely because its supplies could be exposed to the wild attacks of the Egyptians from special forces elements that has operated well at those period.
If the Israel forces position was very well as they try to delude us, then why they did not progress with these forces to Cairo? What prevent the Israel forces from progressing to Cairo?
First: the 4th Armored Division Supported by Republican Guard Brigade ,
and the Algerian Armored Brigade in the front of the approaching Israel forces from Cairo and , if the Israel forces moved towards Cairo, they would have make their military positions getting worse than its already is
As we pointed before that they did not secure safe supplies routs to supply their forces and most supplies were by air
Then Ask Why Israel transformed the bridge over the Suez Canal to tarmac bridge instead of floating bridge?
Answer that with, it was an Israel escape bridge which is difficult to destroy in comparison with the metal floating bridge, is that an assuring thinking of their forces in the area???
2-Another will ask ((Our country military fought with the Egyptian army and did awesome heroic act made the rivers and seas dry from the strength of our military))!!!
Your answer – here is a list of Arab supplies to Egypt during the war .
- A Sukhoi 7 squadron aircraft arrived on October 10 to the airbase Bear Arida in a very bad technical condition and did not participate in any fighting operations.
- A MiG-21 squadron arrived on October 12 stationed at airports (Ganaklis) and did not participate in any fighting.
- A MiG-17 squadron arrived on October 11 and did not participate in any operation.
- Almost completed the Armored brigade arrival the Egyptian Borders on October 13 and was placed in the back of the Third Army sector under the leadership of the Fourth armored squad and participated in the Artillery clashes only during the second war of attrition, and entered within a Shamel plan Planning.
- Libyan squadron Mirage 5 stationed in Ganaklis since the middle of the war, but the technical condition of the pilots was low, it prevented from involvement in any Combats.
- An Armored brigade - arrived late near the end of the war and entered into a Shamel plan Planning.
It is worth mentioning that the Egyptian squadron 69 Mirage 5 had been financed with Libyan money , During the war Libyans pilots arrived on October 9 to Tanta air base to withdrawal these aircrafts to Libya again
because of the Fury of Colonel Gaddafi from Sadat as the war Broke out without his knowledge, and of course these pilots got full hospitality in Tanta airport and they returned by car or on foot.
Iraqi Forces is only non Egyptian Forces Join the Real Combats on Suez Canal Front from Day 1
Stationed squadron of Hawker Hunter before the war in Quesna Airport, and participated in the air strike on October 6 then in the next bombing operations and the pilots of this squadron did a commendable job and suffer from Pilot Losses
Palestine National Guard Battalion was station near Fayed before the war , When the Gap Battle Started , the Israeli tanks attacked the battalion positions and overrun the Battalion Defenses as it was Equipped only with Light weapons , the losses of this battalion not know till now .
Morocco – Sudan
Each country sent infantry brigade arrived near the end of the war and entered into a Shamel plan planning, though the Morocco brigade had participated in the second attrition war with artillery shelling and exchange of gunfire.
Tunisia – Kuwait
Kuwaiti battalion were Stationed in the area - Kabrete - west of the Canal before the war, when the gap happened and the Israeli forces approached the central area, the members of that force withdrew without a fight and suffered from Israeli air strike and lost around 11 Solider
Tunisian battalion arrived Egypt near the end of the war and entered into a Shamel plan Planning.
This is the fact of Arabs participation, which reached all after October 10 (except the Iraqi squadron), it was mostly a administrative burden on the Egyptian army in terms of preparation , Logistics and processing, as well as the Algerian forces that arrived were not fluent in Arabic Language but speak French only.
But those troops helped strongly in installing the new defensive line to the siege of the gap Forces
And if anyone thought that Egypt deny the favor of Arab troops , then why the sources mentioned the Iraqi squadron and Palestine effective participation and did not mention the participation of other forces ???? Because this is the mere fact.
And the brothers who claim falsely that their troops participated in the victory and in fighting, I will tell them
((Bring your proofif you are truthful))
In other words
((Evidence is on whom he claimed and oath is on whom he denied))
This example also applies to War of October; Arab forces was involved , with its presence on the battle field side by side with the Egyptian forces in the last days of the war, which is honor to those countries and their armies, and a bright point in the history of the Arab unification.
However, this presence in the front should not turn into illusory and false allegations and lies, without any evidence or reference.
Let us unite to stop the distortion of the war and the robbery of our history.